Penn State Media Sales / Science

Science DVDs Offered by Penn State Media Sales

Voice Production: The Vibrating Larynx

Illustrates the topography and anatomy of the larynx, showing the muscles and innervation involved in voice production. Using stroboscopic illumination and an f generator, the movement of the vocal cords, both in the preparation and living subject, was recorded at twenty-four frames per second. Voice Production: The Vibrating Larynx demonstrates the differences in vocal characteristics.

Biology, Brain, and Behavior: The Brain

This video workbook takes viewers on a tour of the amazing structure of the brain, circling it, descending into it, exploring its various levels, and discovering the functions of all its key elements. Incorporates animation and models to assist in providing a comprehensive study of brain physiology.

Chemistry 102: Polymers, Parts 1 and 2

Part 1 defines polymers, details the mechanisms of addition and condensation polymerization, and describes the main types of copolymers. Part 2 shows how the properties of a polymer are related to the kinds of intermolecular forces present, molecular weight, crystallinity, and crosslinking.

Biology, Brain, and Behavior: Questions About Behavior

Studies a male three-spined stickleback fish that builds a nest, attracts a female to spawn there, and then fertilizes and watches over the eggs that she leaves behind. To explain these activities, this program asks ethologist Niko Tinbergen's famous "four questions": What causes the behavior patterns? What function do they serve? How did they evolve? How did they develop in the individual?

The Goldenrod and the Gallfly: Evolution of an Interaction

Copyright 2001, Bucknell University A video and teacher guide designed to enhance student understanding of host plant and herbivore interactions, the impacts of predators and parasites on herbivores, the evolution of traits, and the formation of new species. Teacher guide includes September through December field experiments and study questions. Appropriate for high school and post secondary levels, as well as general public interest. Produced by Paul Heinrich for Bucknell University, 2001.

Biology, Brain, and Behavior: Social Primates

This video workbook offers viewers methods for observing and interpreting social behavior. The first part shows clips of rhesus monkeys behaving in a variety of social encounters and asks viewers to analyze the behavior using the methods of a scientific observer. The second part applies those methods to children's rough-and-tumble play in an effort to develop new insights into child development.

Chemistry 102: Introduction to Thermodynamics

Defines the terms used in thermodynamic studies. Covers heat, work, and energy, and shows that temperature is a measure of average random kinetic energy.

The Bushveld Complex

Examines the mineralogy, petrology, and geologic development of southern Africa's Bushveld Igneous Complex, the world's largest and best-preserved layered intrusion. Beginning with the filling of the Transvaal Basin and the extrusion of the Rooiberg Felsite, the film demonstrates the emplacement of the main igneous bodies, the development of the metamorphic aureole, and the formation of deposits of chromite, platinum, and other minerals. Introductory comments by E.M. Cameron of the University of Wisconsin. From the Geology of Southern Africa series.

Introduction to Strengthening Materials

Depicts four methods of strengthening materials using aluminum as an example: (1) tangled arrays of dislocations in cold-worked aluminum impede the further motion of dislocation; (2) decoration of a dislocation by atoms of different size in a solid solution acts as a drag on the dislocation line; (3 and 4) the closely related mechanisms of precipitation and dispersion hardening form barriers to dislocation through the presence of second-phase particles. The microstructure of these phenomena is demonstrated through animation. From the Strength and Deformation of Solids series.

Indications of Distance and Direction in the Honeybee: Round and Waggle Dance

Observes the round dance of the near foragers and the tail-wagging dance of the far foragers at distances of 100 meters, 200 meters, 500 meters, and 1,000 meters. Analyzes distance and direction, indicating in terms of orientation parameters: rhythm,energy expenditure, buzzing during tail-wagging phase, and transposing from optical angle between sun and feeding place to the gravitational field. Details tail-wagging dance.

Evolution: Human Origins -- A Walk Through Time

The evolutionary development of such human anatomical traits as bipedalism and the opposable thumb are traced through a new approach involving electromyography. Presents comparisons of skulls from chimpanzees, humans, and a variety of hominoids, including "Lucy," an example of Australopithecus afarensis.

Biology, Brain, and Behavior: Analysis of Behavior

This video workbook gives viewers an exercise in observing and interpreting the subtleties of animal behavior. During an unbroken, unnarrated sequence that captures the interaction among gulls in a group, viewers write down their descriptions of the behavior patterns of the focal bird. Then the sequence is replayed, explaining what went on among the birds and stressing the importance in all animal studies of looking for the sometimes barely discernible behavior patterns.

Biology, Brain, and Behavior: Living with Tourette's

Explains that the diagnosis of Tourette's syndrome is difficult because no two sufferers of this rare neuropsychiatric disorder demonstrate exactly the same symptoms. Notes that imbalances in the brain of chemical transmitters such as dopamine are the likely cause, profiles some of the individuals stricken by and struggling with the illness, and examines some of the methods used to treat it.

Chemistry 102: Organic Functional Groups

Introduces the structure, nomenclature, and basic properties of the main organic functional groups.

Climate Change Future Our climate is changing RICHARD ALLEY

CLASSROOM RIGHTS ONLY Richard Alley discusses the latest climate change developments and what we can do to make a difference. Richard Alley is Evan Pugh Professor of Geosciences and EMS Environment Institute at Penn State. He is one of several Penn State earth scientists who contributes to the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, which shared the 2007 Nobel Prize with Al Gore. Alley's teaching philosophy focuses on helping students to discover the motivation, tools, and background knowledge to contribute to society as lifelong learners. Alley has authored numerous publications including The Two-Mile Time Machine, which received the 2001 Phi Beta Kappa Science Award. His current research focuses on glaciology, ice sheet stability, and paleoclimates from ice cores.

Reversible and Irreversible Events

Some happenings can proceed in a forward direction as well as in a backward direction. Other events are not reversible, or do not appear normal when reversed. The events portrayed are of the kind found in an ordinary environment, not of the kind discussed by the physicists in the controversy over the "arrow of time." J.J. Gibson and P. Kaushall. silent. c 1972 .

Chemistry 101: Matter and Energy

Describes light as a form of electromagnetic radiation that can act as a particle or as a wave. Defines wavelength, amplitude, frequency, and interference. Shows how wavelength and frequency are related and how Planck's equation relates the two models of light.

Chemistry 101: Periodic Tables

Traces the historical development of the periodic table, relates electron configuration similarities to the arrangement of the elements in the modern periodic table, and discusses atomic radii periodic trend.

Concepts of Dislocations

Employs animation on an atomic scale to describe what takes place when dislocations occur. Shows the relationship between edge and screw dislocations, and demonstrates slip planes, dislocation loops, and mixed dislocations. Plastic deformation at low stress levels is illustrated in an animated sequence and by the analogous motion of a living caterpillar. From the Strength and Deformation of Solids series.

Deformation of Crystalline Materials: Part 1

A fifty-foot copper wire is deformed under different loads. The components of elastic, anelastic, and plastic deformation are plotted on a stress-strain diagram. Uses split-screen presentation of the observed deformation and the stress-strain curves to emphasize their interpretation. From the Strength and Deformation of Solids series.

Deformation of Crystalline Materials: Part 2

Single crystals of zinc in different orientations are deformed in a tensile testing machine. An animated sequence of plastic deformation is related to the basal slip plane of a hexagonal close-packed structure. Illustrates why the close-packed planes are more easily deformed than planes that are not close-packed. A polycrystalline specimen is deformed as well, and the resultant slip bands are shown in a micrographic view of the sample. From the Strength and Deformation of Solids series.

Evolution: Drosophila -- Biology and Behavior

The spectacular radiation and speciation present in the picture wing, a group of species of large Drosophila flies in the Hawaiian Islands, provide a unique opportunity for the study of evolution. Examines behavioral and physical differences in field and laboratory environments, and outlines efforts to protect this rich source of scientific information. This ten-part series exploring evolutionary selection and adaptation was produced by the BBC for the British Open University.

Evolution: Speciation -- Sexual Selection in Fruit Flies

Investigates the phylogeny of Hawaii's Drosophila flies, looking particularly at the way in which a change in courtship behavior can initiate speciation. Shows how this information is being used to develop a population of sterile flies that can be introduced into the wild for the purpose of pest control in California.

A Two-Edged Sword

Examines Tay-Sachs disease, a fatal genetic disorder more prevalent among those of Jewish descent from central and eastern Europe than among the general population. Discusses carrier tests, amniocentesis, care issues, abortion, and the need for parent support groups. Study guides available. From the Through the Genetic Maze series. Produced by Penn State Television / WPSX-TV in association with the Hastings Center, Institute of Society, Ethics, and the Life Sciences.

We Can Decide

Traces the development of amniocentesis, an examination of the amniotic fluid and the cells of the developing fetus it contains, which is used to detect such genetic defects as Down's syndrome and Tay-Sachs disease. Explores ethical issues, such as abortion, that can arise as a result of this test. Study guides available. From the Through the Genetic Maze series. Produced by Penn State Television / WPSX-TV in association with the Hastings Center, Institute of Society, Ethics, and the Life Sciences.

Chemistry 101: Atomic Structure

Examines the relationship between atomic spectra and the electronic structure of the atom. Discusses the quantization of energy, electron probability distributions, and the Rydberg equation for hydrogen.

Chemistry 101: Chemical Bonding

Describes the different types of chemical bonds -- covalent, polar covalent, and ionic -- and the properties of compounds with these bonds. Introduces electronegativity and polar bonds.

Chemistry 101: Electrolytes in Solution

Covers strong, weak, and non electrolytes, and introduces molarity and titration calculations.

Chemistry 101: Electron Configurations

Shows how atomic spectra provide information about the arrangement of electrons in atoms and the shapes of atomic orbitals. Illustrates the writing of electron configurations.

Chemistry 101: Elementary Particles

Discusses the structure of the atom, electrons, protons, and neutrons. Describes Rutherford's gold-foil experiment; defines atomic number, mass number, and isotopes; and discusses radioactivity and nuclear fusion.

Chemistry 101: Fire in Matter

Introduces some of the basic concepts of thermodynamics. Processes are studied in terms of energy transfer between a system or its surroundings, showing that although energy may be exchanged between the two, it is always conserved -- hence the first law of thermodynamics.

Chemistry 101: Gases

Investigates some of the properties of gases and derives the ideal gas equation.

Chemistry 101: Kinetic Molecular Theory

Uses observations to build a model of gas behavior based on certain assumptions. Develops Graham's law of effusion and describes some ways in which real gases deviate from ideal behavior (van der Waal's equation).

Chemistry 101: Lewis Structures

Develops steps for drawing the Lewis structures of molecules and ions. Discusses exceptions to the octet rule and introduces resonance.

Chemistry 101: Molecular Architecture

Introduces VSEPR and the effect of lone pairs of electrons on the structures of molecules and ions. Describes how the structure affects the polarity of a molecule.

Chemistry 101: Nonmetals and Natural Cycles

Examines the chemical makeup of the atmosphere and defines troposphere, stratosphere, and homeostasis. Studies the chemistry and the atmospheric cycles of three elements important in the troposphere and stratosphere: oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen.

Chemistry 101: Orbitals and Bonding

Describes the formation and characteristics of sigma and pi bonds, and the mixing of atomic orbitals to form hybrid orbitals. Shows how the arrangement of electrons around an atom can be used to predict which hybrid orbitals are formed and how the presence of pi bonds can result in cis-trans isomerism and the delocalization of electrons.

Chemistry 101: Periodic Trends

Introduces ionization energy and electronegativity and discusses periodic trend for each. Discusses the exceptions to the ionization energy trend for second period elements.

Chemistry 101: Phases and Forces

Shows how the three phases of matter differ from one another and how both temperature and the strength of intermolecular forces determine the stable phase of a substance. Introduces dispersion forces, dipole-dipole interactions, and hydrogen bonds. Generates a heating curve for water and introduces vapor pressure.

Chemistry 101: Stoichiometry

Defines empirical formula, mole-limiting reagent, and theoretical yield. Determines the empirical and molecular formulas of a compound, the formula of silver sulfide by experiment, and the limiting reagent and per cent yield in the thermite reaction.

Chemistry 101: Water and Its Solutions

Shows how surface tension can be explained by assuming attractive cohesive forces in water and how capillary action and solution formation can be explained by considering the adhesive forces between water and other substances. Introduces hydrates and other interactions of substances with water.

Chemistry 101: What Is Chemistry?

Describes several classifications of matter and changes in matter, and defines physical and chemical changes. Classifies matter by composition -- heterogeneous and homogeneous mixtures, elements, and compounds. Notes that elements and compounds can be divided into groups with similar properties.

Chemistry 102: Alcohols

Covers nomenclature and physical properties of alcohols, as well as oxidation and dehydration reactions of alcohols.

Chemistry 102: Alloys and Their Phase Diagrams

Distinguishes the major classifications of alloys. Introduces cooling curves, eutectics, and solid-liquid phase diagrams.

Chemistry 102: Azeotropes -- Liquid Lawbreakers

Describes positive and negative deviations from Raoult's law and their origins, showing that highly positive deviations can result in a minimum-boiling azeotrope and highly negative deviations in a maximum-boiling azeotrope.

Chemistry 102: Bonding in the Solid State

Shows how the electrical and thermal conductivity of solids is related to their molecular orbital structure. Illustrates the properties of p- and n-type semiconductors.

Chemistry 102: Chirality

Defines chirality, enantiomer, optical activity, and racemic mixture. Demonstrates nonsuperimposability and drawing structures, and discusses some consequences of chirality.

Chemistry 102: Coal Chemistry

Looks at the structure and uses of coal and coal products, and describes the molecular structure and reactivity of the aromatic ring.

Chemistry 102: Crystal Structure

Illustrates properties of the crystalline state. Introduces the hexagonal and cubic closest-packed atomic structures and the CsCl, NaCl, and ZnS ionic structures. Discusses the importance of cation to anion radius ratio in determining the ionic structure assumed.

Chemistry 102: Cubic Cells

Illustrates the cubic unit cells that are important in crystallography, and shows how to count atoms in a cell.

Chemistry 102: Disaccharides -- Sucrose and Lactose (Revised Edition)

Describes the glycosidic bond in sucrose and lactose and the difference between a reducing and nonreducing sugar.

Chemistry 102: Distillation

Explains the difference between pot and fractional distillation, using ethanol production as an example. Introduces temperature-composition diagrams for two-component systems.

Chemistry 102: Electrochemical Cells -- Voltaic

Presents voltaic cells as a means of converting chemical to electrical energy. Relative oxidation potential is introduced and half-cell potentials are combined to give a cell potential.

Chemistry 102: Electrolytic Cells

Introduces electrolysis and electrolytic calculations. Shows how to determine which of several competing reactions will occur at any electrode and discusses conditions necessary for good plating to occur.

Chemistry 102: Free Energy and Equilibrium

The extent of reaction is shown to be related to (triangle) Go, where (triangle) G is an indication of how far a system is from equilibrium.

Chemistry 102: Glucose: A Building Block of Carbohydrates (Revised Edition)

Describes the structure and some physical and chemical properties of glucose.

Chemistry 102: Heat Capacities

Defines heat capacity and shows how the heat capacities of gases depend on molecular structure.

Chemistry 102: Hydrogen Deficiency

Introduces the structure, nomenclature, and reactions of alkenes. Also covers geometrical isomerism, conjugation of double bonds, and addition polymerization.

Chemistry 102: Integrated Rate Laws and Half-Lives

Shows how to determine the order of a reaction from a plot of some function of concentration vs. time. Uses first-order rate constants to determine half-lives of reactions, and notes applications to radioactive dating.

Chemistry 102: Introduction to Hydrocarbons

Introduces the structure and nomenclature of alkanes. Free radical substitution reactions are demonstrated and sources described.

Chemistry 102: Municipal Water Treatment

Illustrates three major methods used to remove unwanted ions from water: Precipitation is used to soften water and to remove heavy metal cations from waste water, ion exchange is used to produce deionized water and in home water softeners, and chelation is used in confined systems to sequester metallic cations.

Chemistry 102: Phase Diagrams -- The Whole Picture

Shows that phase diagrams are plotted from measurements of the temperature dependence of vapor pressure. Shows what happens to a system that follows a horizontal or a vertical path on a phase diagram, and defines triple point and critical point.

Chemistry 102: Principles of Solubility

Relates solubility of two substances to their relative polarities -- the closer they are in polarity, the more soluble are the materials -- and notes that attractive forces between the molecules of the pure substances must be broken for a solution to form.

Chemistry 102: Reaction Mechanisms

Defines chemical reaction mechanism and shows how to evaluate proposed mechanisms by checking for consistency with the experimental rate law.

Chemistry 102: Reaction Orders

Illustrates how to determine the molecularity and order of a reaction. Finds the rate law of a reaction, then shows how the rate depends on reactant concentration.

Chemistry 102: Reaction Rates

Shows that temperature, surface area, and concentration all can affect the rate of a chemical reaction. Offers a general idea of the aim of kinetics studies and defines chemical reaction rates. Introduces reaction coordinates and potential energy surfaces.

Chemistry 102: Spontaneity

Demonstrates that any process which will increase the entropy of the universe will occur spontaneously.

Chemistry 102: The First Law

Illustrates the first law of thermodynamics, distinguishing path functions and state functions. Demonstrates how work done in gas expansion depends on the path taken. Introduces calorimetry and shows how enthalpy is related to internal energy.

Chemistry 102: The Third Law

Explores the relationship between entropy and probability. S is calculated from W, the number of microstates corresponding to a given macrostate. Presents the third law of thermodynamics and compares the absolute entropies of various substances.

Chemistry 102: Thermochemistry, Parts 1 and 2

Part 1 relates bond energy to molecular structure and shows how to use bond energies to calculate heats of reaction. Part 2 defines standard state and enthalpy of formation, and shows how to use enthalpies of formation to calculate H.

Chemistry 102: Thermodynamics of Solutions

Describes solubility in terms of the thermodynamic functions G, H, and S.

Chemistry 102: Vapor Pressure of Solutions

Demonstrates Henry's law with carbonated beverages and Raoult's law with a bell jar (water and H(subscript 2)SO(subscript 4)) -- and burets (ether and xylene). Presents pressure-composition diagrams of two-component systems.

Chemistry 102: Work

Discusses path dependency of work and relates work done by a system to the free-energy change, offering as an example the harnessing of work using hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells. Relates w(subscript max) to the cell potential.

Chromium

Describes chromium as the supreme additive, endowing alloys or compounds with properties of strength, hardness, smoothness, permanence, color, and resistance to temperature, wear, and corrosion. Traces the history of the uses of chromium and demonstrates how the mineral is mined in South Africa.

Development of the Sea Urchin (Psammechinus Miliaris): Differentiation of the Coelom

Follows the growth of larva and related complicated differentiation of coelom and growth of sea urchin disc. Film sequences document development from five-day-old pluteus to metamorphosis of pluteus in four to five weeks.

Development of the Sea Urchin (Psammechinus Miliaris): Fertilization and Cleavage

Uses differential interference-contrast technique to show the penetration of a sperm into an unfertilized egg, which immediately reacts with raising of the fertilized membrane. Demonstrates migration of both pronuclei toward each other and their fusion. Details developmental sequence from first cleavage division to morula.

Development of the Sea Urchin (Psammechinus Miliaris): Gastrulation and Larval Stages

Demonstrates gastrulation, including the ingrowth of primary mesenchymal cells, invagination of the archenteron, and outgrowth of secondary mesenchymal cells on immobilized swimming blastulae. Documents formation and growth of triaxial skeletal spicule from two small calcite granula. Transforms gastrula into first, the prism stage, and second, pluteus larva. Four-day-old pluteus larva is shown.

Development of the Sea Urchin (Psammechinus Miliaris): Metamorphosis

Shows the "dissolution" of the larval body using time-lapse photography. The transition from the bilateral symmetry of the pluteus to the star-shaped radial symmetry is explained in an animated sequence. The metamorphosis is induced by the addition of cesium chloride.

Developmental Biology of an Ascidian (Halocynthia Roretzi)

Covers the ascidian's life cycle and structure, and uses microphotography, time-lapse photography, and diagrams to document in detail the organism from fertilization to the larval stage, and then through metamorphosis to the young adult stage. Makes the point that ascidians, or sea squirts, are of particular interest to biologists because, from a phylo-genetic point of view, they represent a group between the vertebrates and the invertebrates. Produced by Tokyo Cinema.

Evolution: Evolution on Hawaii

As the most isolated archipelago in the world, Hawaii offers a fertile source of evolutionary information, boasting the world's greatest number of endemic species and the highest number of recorded extinctions. Focuses on the development of Hawaii's habitats, and on the influx and adaptation of its plant and animal species.

Evolution: Fine Preservation in Fossils -- An Evolutionary Bonanza

A study of some of the near-perfect fossils found in great numbers in northeastern Brazil's Sanatana Formation, including wood, insects, a pterosaur, and aquatic life. Examines mineralization, impressions, concretion, a mass-mortality assemblage, and the accretion of sediment layers. Shows a fossilized fish under an electron microscope.

Evolution: Horses for Courses -- An Evolutionary Radiation

Tracks the evolutionary development of the horse, looking at such adaptations as running and jumping skills, speed, differentiation between ancestral species, and leg morphology and development. The process is illustrated by dramatic horse fossils found in the United States and Germany.

Evolution: Reindeer in the Arctic -- A Study in Adaptation

Compares the adaptive characteristics of Arctic and sub-Arctic reindeer, shown in their natural habitat. Each species exhibits features that uniquely qualify its members for successful existence in their often harsh native environment.

Evolution: Sexual Selection -- Why Do Peacocks Have Elaborate Trains?

Shows how researchers at the Whipsnade Zoo in Great Britain determine that the purpose of the male peacock's train is to attract females, as part of the bird's mating behavior, and explores the significance of the length of the train. Illustrates the scientific method in action.

Evolution: The Human Factor in Evolution

Looks at the effects of artificial selection in livestock, such as limiting genetic diversity and creating animals too fragile to sustain regular activity. Also examines genetic engineering and how careless extermination of native flora and fauna or introduction of exotics can disrupt the natural ecological balance.

Evolution: The Silversword Alliance -- The Evolution of Plants in an Island Setting

Studies the relatively recent evolution of the silversword alliance, which comprises three genetically similar plant genera -- Argyroxiphia, Dubautia, and Wilkesia -- that grow only in the Hawaiian Islands and that provide a remarkable example of adaptive radiation. Examines the search for proof of common ancestry and common origin.

A 50 / 50 Chance

Focuses on hemophilia and describes the recently developed prenatal procedure of fetoscopy, which accurately predicts whether a male fetus will be affected by the disease. Also discusses home therapy, new methods of treatment, and the high costs of hemophiliac care. Study guides available. From the Through the Genetic Maze series. Produced by Penn State Television / WPSX-TV in association with the Hastings Center, Institute of Society, Ethics, and the Life Sciences.

Free Energy Curves and Binary Phase Diagrams

Graphically demonstrates the development of binary phase diagrams from free energy curves. Relates the change in Gibbs Free Energy to increasing temperature in a one-component system. Examines the relationship of the summary curve to curves for crystalline, liquid, and gas phases. The contribution of composition as well as temperature is demonstrated for a binary system. This is extended to the free energy surface in G-T-X space to show how minimum criteria are used to generate the phase diagram.From the Phase Equilibria series. Produced by WPSX TV 1975

Generation of Phase Diagrams from Free Energy Curves

Illustrates the relationship between the relative positions of free energy curves and the natures of phase diagrams or phase transformations. Several cases are considered: a single-lens diagram, a maximum in the solidus and liquidus lines (positive azeotrope), a two-phase eutectic, a two-phase peritectic, a three-phase eutectic, and a three-phase peritectic. Demonstrates applications of the lever rule and looks at its industrial application in the iron-carbon and alumina-magnesia systems that incorporate several of the transformations. From the Phase Equilibria series. Produced by Claude Lupis of Carnegie Mellon University.

Gibbs Free Energy: Enthalpy and Entropy

Demonstrates that Gibbs Free Energy is made up of enthalpy and entropy terms. Physical reality is illustrated by computer-generated models. Kinetic and potential energies of a crystal are shown by a ball and spring simulation, while in the same split-screen segment the binding energy of the atoms is depicted by a potential energy trough. As temperature is raised, amplitude of motion in the atoms increases, resulting in a change of phase. The split screen shows change in the disorder of the system. Variations caused by composition as well as temperature are viewed for both enthalpy and entropy. From the Phase Equilibria series. Produced by WPSX TV 1975

The Hall Effect in Semiconducting Materials

Variation of conductivity with temperature is shown by a simple experiment in which a current is sent through a metal and a semiconductor while heat is applied to each. The reason for the difference in the conductivity of the semiconductor is explained in an animated sequence of electrons moving in response to a potential difference in the presence of a perpendicularly oriented magnetic field. A method for measuring the Hall voltage is demonstrated, and a final experiment shows this measurement being taken for an N-type semiconductor, a P-type semiconductor, and a metal. From the Electrical Characterization series.

Isothermal Sections with Simple Ternary Eutectic

A custom-made Plexiglas model displays the temperature-composition relations in a three-component system with simple ternary eutectic. Sections at various temperatures are built into the model and are withdrawn one after the other to show the phase changes as temperature is reduced. Introduces the significance of tie-lines, the lever rule, phase fields and boundaries, and the phase rule. From the Phase Equilibria series.

Isothermal Sections with Solid Solution

Uses a model to interpret temperature-composition relations in a three-component system with solid solution. Sections at various temperatures are withdrawn one after the other to show the phase changes as temperature is reduced. Illustrates the relation of the solid solution to the components of the ternary system and the subsequent development of an invariant three-phase triangle. From the Phase Equilibria series.

Our Mineral World

Surveys the world's mineral deposits, the process of continental drift and the formation of minerals over millions of years, and the ways in which these once-abundant resources are rapidly being exhausted. Includes interviews with geologists, economists, and geographers, featuring Dr. Brian Skinner of Yale University.

Platinum

Describes the discovery and geologic origin of platinum, and looks at its mining process and stages of production. Surveys its early uses, which included adoption as the standard metric weight, and its modern uses, which include employment in medicine, industry, and fine jewelry. Written and directed by Gerald Weinbren.

Reading Ternary Phase Diagrams

Depicts how the data in a ternary phase diagram are deciphered and shows how information is obtained about composition, the primary fields of crystallization for each component, and temperature in its relationship to the isothermal lines. Computer animation. From the Phase Equilibria series.

Spore Dispersal in the Basidiomycetes

Microphotography, time-lapse photography, and demonstrations in the field and in the lab are employed to document different methods of spore dispersal in several of the more than 10,000 species of Basidiomycetes. The different degrees of adaptation to aid spore dispersal found among several species are examined in great detail in both Hymnomycetidae and Gasteromycetidae. Produced by the Institut fur den Wissenschaftlichen Film.

Strategies for Interfacial Engineering: Seeing in a New Way

Describes advances in the understanding of colloidal and interfacial systems by demonstrating and discussing recent technology for use in the direct viewing of microstructures. Covers surfactant numbers, fluorescence life-time apparatus, video-enhanced microscopy, cryo-transmission electron microscopy, flow cells, and surface forces apparatus. Produced by the University of Minnesota.

Ternary Diagrams Derived from Binaries

Examines the relationship of phase diagrams to many real cases of materials technology. The construction of a ternary system from three binary systems is animated by computer graphics, and the projection of the upper curved surfaces onto the base of the solid model is explained. Demonstrates that this projection contains information about composition, primary phase fields, and temperature in a given ternary system. Ternary Diagrams Derived from Binaries is from the Phase Equilibria series.

To Build Our Future

Provides a detailed look at the issues of genetic counseling and presents some of the possibilities for prevention of genetic diseases through the use of genetic engineering research, including the application of gene splicing and cloning. Study guides available. From the Through the Genetic Maze series. Produced by Penn State Television / WPSX-TV in association with the Hastings Center, Institute of Society, Ethics, and the Life Sciences.

Where There Is Life There Is Motion: 1 -- Function of Microtubules

Microtubules exist in all living things, except bacteria and blue-green algae. Within cells, they maintain cell shape and produce movement of the cells themselves. Micrographic techniques document ciliary and flagellar movement, a mechanism mediated by the microtubules, in a variety of organisms. Produced by Sozo and Kazuo Okada, Tokyo Cinema.

The Neurolab Project

On April 2nd, Penn State astronaut Jim Pawelczyk will be aboard the space shuttle Columbia when it carries Neurolab, which focuses on the human nervous system. This video describes several experiments that will be done on board the shuttle; Pawelcyzk invites middle school students to perform similar experiemnts on earth. Three career segments of the space program are also depicted on the video. Accompanying print material with experiment instructions included.

Frontiers of Science - Signaling between Cells in the Brain - Ewing

Andy Ewing, professor of chemistry at Penn State discusses the organization of the human nervous system, chemical messengers between nerve cells, and models of cell-to cell signaling. Lecture on audiotape, with Q+A period included.

Frontiers of Science - Genetics of Human Diseases - Hess

Ellen Hess, assistant professor of neuroscience and anatomy at Penn State dicusses the molecular basis of inherited neurologic disorders. Lecture on audiotape with Q+A session included.

Biological Membranes: Chemical Building Blocks

Biological membranes consist of proteins and lipids. Membrane lipids, mainly phospholipids, are emphipathic, possessing both hydrophobic and hydrophilic areas that are separated from one another. Lecithin is used as an example to demonstrate the lipids' fundamental chemical structure and resultant physical properties. The diversity of membrane lipids is examined and classified. Emphipathic characteristics of the proteins are briefly considered.

Biological Membranes: Fundamental Characteristics

Discusses basic elements of any living organism, the cell and the cell membrane, as well as the membrane's functions: to assure the individuality of each cell and to enable the cells to communicate with each other and with the outside world. In order to function, passive and active transport of material and energy through the membrane must be possible. Chemical analysis of biological membranes reveals two basic building blocks, proteins and lipids.

Biological Membranes: Physical Models; Monolayer, Bilayer, and Liposomes

Documents that the physical properties of water and the interface activity of emphipathic molecules encourage the organization of special structures, demonstrated through the hydrophobe-hydrophile behavior of phospholipids. Monolayer, bilayer, and liposomes are typical basic structures, and, as physical models, they show specific properties of natural membranes. Production methods and functions are shown in animation.

Biology, Brain, and Behavior: A Conflict of Interest

The first program in this eleven-part series, which investigates the links among biology, brain, and behavior, explores the ways in which animals resolve their disputes. The width of a breast stripe, the size of a set of antlers, and the strength of a roar represent several of the qualities that can deter fighting, or, in the case of the latter two, predict which animal will emerge victorious should combat develop. (Note: Three programs identified as video workbooks offer the opportunity for intensive and repeated study by viewers.) Produced by Encyclopedia Britannica Educational Corporation, BBC Open University, and Penn State.

Biology, Brain, and Behavior: Easing the Pain

Makes the point that for some people, pain isn't just a symptom of disease but the disease itself. Visits Europe's largest pain clinics to talk with experts who treat patients suffering from chronic pain. Much about the neurological mechanisms involved in the pain experience is revealed in the techniques employed by these scientists.

Biology, Brain, and Behavior: Hearing the Call

To show how life forms "hear the call," this program uses as an example a meadow filled with insects and other creatures singing songs and uttering rhythmic sounds, prompting the query; "With so many different voices competing for attention, how does an insect such as the female bush cricket pick out the song sung by a serenading male?" Scientists suggest some of the neurophysiological reasons for the cricket's amazing "ear."

Biology, Brain, and Behavior: Pathfinding in the Brain

Illustrates how, in an embryonic nervous system, neurons from the eye travel a path that eventually connects them with the brain. Tracks this function in the embryo of a zebra fish, looking at the features of the cellular landscape that guide these neurons to their destination and posing the question: Are there mechanisms of guidance common to all vertebrates, including humans?

Biology, Brain, and Behavior: Seasonal Affective Disorder

Points out that for victims of seasonal affective disorder, an illness that grips them during the short days and long nights of winter, only half-hour doses of bright light during darkness can alleviate their suffering. Turns to the world of biology to gain insights into this strange illness, investigating such things as circadian rhythms and secretion of the hormone melatonin.

Biology, Brain, and Behavior: Stress

Portrays stress as a threatening intrusion that causes blood pressure to rise, the heart to beat faster, hormones to be released, blood sugar to elevate, metabolism to increase, and the body to prepare for fight or flight. Notes that stress cannot be fought or run from, and that over time it will wear down the body. Discusses the consequences of stress and shows how the study of tree shrews contributes to an understanding of it and the ways in which the body reacts to it.

Construction of the Light Airplane

This 1942 instructional program identifies the five major parts of an airplane, then shows and explains the construction and operation of each part in detail, such as welding the frame assembly and stitching the fabric on the fuselage and wings. Also touches on the air tests for stability and safe operational performance that were required for licensing. Although more than one model of airplane is shown under construction, the focus is on the Piper Cub. Photographed at Piper Aircraft Corporation inLock Haven, Pennsylvania. Produced by Audio-Visual Services and the College of Engineering at The Pennsylvania State University.

Frontiers of Science Series

$30/tape; $25/DVD

Roots of Discovery

Follow twelve plant scientists on a collaborative journey to uncover the secrets of a small zone of root cells that is instrumental in sensing and responding to environmental signals. Discussions with the scientists, footage of experiments (including the space shuttle experiment) and animation combine to provide a window into the creative and intriguing world of basic research. Produced by Nancy Sue Brink, Present Tense Productions and Dr. Sarah M. Assmann. ©1999 The Ohio State University Research Foundation and The Pennsylvania State University

Roots of Discovery

Follow twelve plant scientists on a collaborative journey to uncover the secrets of a small zone of root cells that is instrumental in sensing and responding to environmental signals. Discussions with the scientists, footage of experiments (including the space shuttle experiment) and animation combine to provide a window into the creative and intriguing world of basic research. Produced by Nancy Sue Brink, Present Tense Productions and Dr. Sarah M. Assmann. ©1999 The Ohio State University Research Foundation and The Pennsylvania State University

Vision with Spatial Inversion

silent C 1951 N H Pronko and F W Snyder Repetition of classic experiment in which subject wears inverting spectacles continuously for several weeks. Initial difficulties in orientation, walking, eating, writing, and card sorting gradually dissipate as subject becomes accustomed to an "upside-down world."

Stimuli Releasing Sexual Behavior of Domestic Turkeys

Detailed analysis of the mating activity of turkeys as a stereotyped pattern of behavior in which each member responds to successive cues from its mate. Project at sound speed. M.W. Schein and E.B. Hale.1958. Produced by M.W. Schein & E.B. Hale.

The Plant Kingdom

Earth's abundant plant life probably evolved from ancient aquatic plants that lived in primordial seas. Learn about the characteristics of plants and see how groups of plants differ from one another. Understand the important role of plant life in any ecosystem. ©2001

Acid Rain

Acid rain is killing our lakes and forests. Many species are in danger of extinction because of the effects of man-made pollution. Learn how acid rain originated and witness its toll on the environment. ©1991

Understanding DNA

State-of-the-art computer graphics guide the viewer through the world of deoxyribonucleic acid. Objectives include composition and structure, as well as replication. We'll also look at genetic expression through two stages of transcription and translation. ©1998

Where There Is Life There Is Motion: 2 -- Role of Microfilaments in Cell Motility

Examines the role of actin and myosin microfilaments in producing cell motion, in determining cell shape, and in working with other contractile proteins to form microtubules. Points out that every living organism moves at some stage of its life cycle and that cell movements involving actin and myosin occur in all eukaryotic cells, from the simplest plant to the most complicated animal. Produced by Sozo and Kazuo Okada, Tokyo Cinema.

Understanding Newton's Laws

Newton was the most eminent figure in the scientific revolution of the 17th Century. Learn about his many contributions and become familiar with scientific laws that he established. ©2001

Understanding the Cell

Travel into the interior of a cell by means of advanced computer graphics. Thanks to amazing microscopy, you can observe real cells as they interact. Understanding the Cell is a program designed to bring the cellular world to the student. Learn about the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. ©1998

Understanding the Metric System

This program explains basic metric units, as well as how to convert from one metric unit to another. In addition, conversion from English units to metric units and proper notation for expressing the metric system are discussed. ©1998

Understanding the Weather

Our lives are affected by weather in innumerable ways. And, while weather is a force we cannot control, we can learn enough to predict its fury. This program explores the many factors that create the weather systems we experience every day. ©2000

Understanding Basic Genetics

This video offers a unique and witty look at the Mendelian Model of Inheritance, and at other basic concepts of genetics, as well. ©1998

Understanding Cell Membranes

Learn about the intricacies of the basic unit of life in this fascinating examination of cell membranes. ©1996 2 VHS video tapes

Understanding Ecosystems

Different parts of the earth produce living conditions that nurture different kinds of plants and animals. The various ecosystems are explored, as are the relationships of entities within these ecosystems. ©1994

Understanding Biodiversity

Earth teems with a variety of life-forms. Each species occupies a hard-won niche and serves as an integral part of the whole. Explore how each species is important to the entire environment. ©1996

All About the Solar System

Our solar system contains a sun, nine planets, moons, asteroids, comets, and meteors. Learn about the celestial bodies that compose our little corner of the universe. Acquaint yourself with some interesting facts about Earth and its neighbors. Grades 3-5. ©2001

All About the Weather

Climate and weather are not the same thing. This video explains what each is and goes on to discuss the various cloud formations that appear in our planet's atmosphere. Aspects of weather such as temperature, humidity, precipitation, wind, and air currents are addressed. Finally, we focus on weather as a powerful force of nature, as we look at thunderstorms, tornadoes, and hurricanes. Grades 3-5 ©2001

How about Atoms and Molecules?

The composition of atoms and how they share, borrow, or steal electrons to form molecules is explained in this basic view of atomic structure. ©1990 2 VHS video tapes

The Atom: Building Block of the Universe

Exciting, computer graphic animation illustrates your cosmic journey...inside the atom! This is a basic look at the building blocks of the universe. ©1998

Acids, Bases, and Salts

Learn to define acids and bases, and discover the differences between the pH and pOH scales. Also, find out how to use the Periodic Table to determine the relative strengths of acids. ©1997

Air Pollution, Smog, and Acid Rain

The thin layer of air that envelops the earth is essential to life. Unfortunately, modern living produces chemical by-products that threaten not only the quality of life, but also the number of living creatures and organisms that can survive in such conditions. ©1995

Global Warming and the Greenhouse Effect

Learn what creates the Greenhouse Effect and discover how it affects weather patterns all over the world. Understand that we must take the threat of global warming seriously to ensure the continued survival of our species. ©2001

Reading the Clouds

The meteorological classification of the ten genera of clouds, the processes that form them, and their roles as manifestations of weather are examined. ©1998

Understanding Volcanoes

Types of volcanoes and the various effects that they have on the landscape are examined. Examples from around the world are provided. The information is thorough and exact. Learn everything you've always wanted to know about volcanoes! ©1987

Waves, Tides, and Currents

The forces at work on the land-sea interface are explained and illustrated with examples from around the world. ©1998

The CSI Effect: Bob Shaler

CLASSROOM RIGHTS ONLY Uncover the importance of forensic science. Bob Shaler discusses the CSI effect and forensic science in the classroom, and he shares what he learned from his work identifying the victims of the World Trade Center attacks. Bob Shaler is professor of biochemistry and molecular biology and director of the forensic science program at Penn State. Formerly he worked as a criminalist at the Pittsburgh Crime Laboratory, served as professor of chemistry at the University of Pittsburgh, and directed the forensic serology laboratory and forensic biological analyses for all New York City homicides. Shaler also directed the investigation to identify the victims of the World Trade Center attacks. He designed, organized, and implemented the DNA testing strategy that became the cornerstone for the majority of the 1592 identified victims.

The CSI Effect: Bob Shaler

HOME USE RIGHTS ONLY Uncover the importance of forensic science. Bob Shaler discusses the CSI effect and forensic science in the classroom, and he shares what he learned from his work identifying the victims of the World Trade Center attacks. Bob Shaler is professor of biochemistry and molecular biology and director of the forensic science program at Penn State. Formerly he worked as a criminalist at the Pittsburgh Crime Laboratory, served as professor of chemistry at the University of Pittsburgh, and directed the forensic serology laboratory and forensic biological analyses for all New York City homicides. Shaler also directed the investigation to identify the victims of the World Trade Center attacks. He designed, organized, and implemented the DNA testing strategy that became the cornerstone for the majority of the 1592 identified victims.

Contact

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